De Iusta Henrici Tertii abdicatione e Francorum regno was written by a radical French Catholic preacher, Jean Boucher, in Paris in 1589. [54] After the Duke was killed in action, his troops remained under the employ of the Huguenots who had raised a loan from England against the security of the Jeanne d'Albret's crown jewels. Foreign allies provided financing and other assistance to both sides, with Habsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supporting the Guises, and England supporting the Protestant side led by the Condés and by the Protestant Jeanne d'Albret, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, and her son, Henry of Navarre. ), Representing France and the French in Early Modern English Drama (Newark, 2008).- Lisa Parmelee, Good Newes from Fraunce: French Anti-league Propaganda in Late Elizabethan England (Rochester, 1996).- Joad Raymond, Pamphlets and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain   (Cambridge, 2003).- John Salmon, The French Religious Wars in English Political Thought (Oxford, 1959).- Alexander Wilkinson, Mary Queen of Scots and French Public Opinion, 1542-1600 (New York, 2004).- Cornel Zwierlein, The political thought of the French League and Rome (1585-1589) (Geneva, 2006). In 1583 the Throckmorton plot was discovered. This group (pejoratively known as Politiques) put their hopes in the ability of a strong centralized government to maintain order and harmony. To make sure that no contender for the French throne was free to act against him, the King had the Duke's son imprisoned. At the Siege of Rouen (May–October 1562), the crown regained the city, but Antoine of Navarre died of his wounds. In the wake of the posters, the French monarchy took a harder stand against the protesters. In the 1550s, the establishment of the Geneva church provided leadership to the disorganized French Calvinist (Huguenot) church. Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 B. He was, however, removed from the position of governor by the Spanish court and died in Arras on 3 December. Three pamphlets give an overview of the political goals of different authors:   The discoverie of a gaping gulf whereinto England is like to be swallowed by an other French marriage (London, 1579) denounced anonymously the negotiations for marriage of Elizabeth to the brother of the King of France and heir to the throne: the duke of Alençon-Anjou. Coligny, along with many other Calvinist nobles, arrived in Paris for the wedding of the Catholic princess Margaret of France to the Protestant prince Henry of Navarre on 18 August 1572. The King knew that he had to take Paris if he stood any chance of ruling all of France. Although it bears some similarity to other translations from the French, this is another original text in the Minster collection. It is said that "the Spanish King is the only cause of all the troubles in France". [12], Protestant ideas were first introduced to France during the reign of Francis I of France (1515–1547) in the form of Lutheranism, the teachings of Martin Luther. Huguenot leaders such as Condé and Coligny fled court in fear for their lives, many of their followers were murdered, and in September, the Edict of Saint-Maur revoked the freedom of Huguenots to worship. She died there on 9 June 1572, and for centuries after her death, Huguenot writers accused Catherine de' Medici of poisoning her. When he returned by invitation in 1541, he wrote the Ecclesiastical ordinances, the constitution for a Genevan church, which was passed by the council of Geneva[clarification needed]. While historians have suggested Charles de Louvier, sieur de Maurevert, as the likely assailant, historians have never determined the source of the order to kill Coligny (it is improbable that the order came from Catherine).[59]. The crown hastily negotiated a truce of seven months with Alençon and promised Casimir's forces 500,000 livres to stay east of the Rhine,[67] but neither action secured a peace. Its account even inspired dramatists, such as Christopher Marlowe in The Massacre at Paris, written c. 1593, and also Thomas Dekker and Michael Drayton in their lost play The Civil Wars of France (1598-9). As Henry III had no son, under Salic Law, the next heir to the throne was the Calvinist Prince Henry of Navarre, a descendant of Louis IX whom Pope Sixtus V had excommunicated along with his cousin, Henri Prince de Condé. Coligny and his troops retreated to the south-west and regrouped with Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, and in spring of 1570, they pillaged Toulouse, cut a path through the south of France, and went up the Rhone valley up to La Charité-sur-Loire. The Estates-General of Blois (1576) failed to resolve matters, and by December, the Huguenots had already taken up arms in Poitou and Guyenne. Germany, France, and the Netherlands each achieved a settlement of the religious problem by means of war, and in each case the solution contained original aspects. On his deathbed, Henry III called for Henry of Navarre, and begged him, in the name of statecraft, to become a Catholic, citing the brutal warfare that would ensue if he refused. The mediation of Catherine de'Medici led to the Edict of Union, in which the crown accepted almost all the League's demands: reaffirming the Treaty of Nemours, recognizing Cardinal de Bourbon as heir, and making Henry of Guise Lieutenant-General. The Italian revival of art and classical learning interested Francis I, who established royal professorships in Paris, equipping more people with the knowledge necessary to understand ancient literature. This, however, was no easy task. The Battle of Ivry, fought on 14 March 1590, was another decisive victory for Henry against forces led by the Duke of Mayenne. On 17 August 1563, Charles IX was declared of age at the Parlement of Rouen ending the regency of Catherine de Medici. The state of affairs in 1589 was that Henry of Navarre, now Henry IV of France, held the south and west, and the Catholic League the north and east. Some of his suite insulted the worshippers, and from insults they proceeded to blows, and the Duke himself was accidentally wounded in the cheek. When a country is in disorder and corruption, people tend to change the bad, old government to the good, new government. Catherine, however, later hardened her stance and, at the time of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, sided with the Guises. Over the remainder of Louis XIII's reign, and especially during the minority of Louis XIV, the implementation of the Edict varied year by year. Leslie was forced to flee to France where he composed, among other pamphlets, this treatise. The coppie of the Anti-Spaniard…, printed in 1590, was one of the most powerful French libels: it directly attacked the person of Philip II. Comparing the English Civil War and the French Revolution Introduction The English Civil War and the French Revolution were some of the events that shaped history in the 18th century. The following year, mobs carried out iconoclasm in more than 20 cities and towns; Catholic urban groups attacked Protestants in bloody reprisals in Sens, Cahors, Carcassonne, Tours and other cities. Clément was killed on the spot, taking with him the information of who, if anyone, had hired him. A timeline chronology showing 17th Century Wars, the main wars of the seventeenth century, including name of war, dates and combatants [61] King Charles IX announced that he had ordered the massacre to prevent a Huguenot coup and proclaimed a day of jubilee in celebration even as the killings continued. The efforts of Habsburg rulers failed to restore Catholic unity across Europe. ", online here.- Andrew Gordon and Thomas Rist (ed. [71] The Duke arrived in the council chamber where his brother the Cardinal waited. Despite Henry according his youngest brother Francis the title of Duke of Anjou, the prince and his followers continued to create disorder at court through their involvement in the Dutch Revolt. That July, the French expelled the English. The English Civil War was starting to brew when, the Scottish king, James I came into power. William Farel also became part of the Meaux circle. [69] This was anathema to the Guise leaders, who wanted to bankrupt the Huguenots and divide their considerable assets with the King. However, in September 1589, Henry inflicted a severe defeat on the Duke at the Battle of Arques. This is an important part of the Minster Library collection, because the French source does not survive. 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