, In certain patients with temporal lobe epilepsy it has been found that the subiculum could generate epileptic activity. It has been shown that it is theoretically possible to generate seizures in the neural networks due to down-regulation of KCC2, consistent with the chloride measurements during the transition to seizure and KCC2 blockade experiments. abnormal morphology: loss of internal architecture (interdigitations of hippocampus), increased signal and or atrophy of the anterior thalamic nucleus, increased signal and/or reduction in the volume of the, dilatation of temporal horn and temporal lobe atrophy, collateral white matter and entorhinal cortex atrophy, loss of grey-white matter interface in the anterior temporal lobe, decreased NAA and decreased NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios, decreased MI in ipsilateral temporal lobe, increased lipid and lactate soon after as seizure. Mesial Temporal Sclerosis (MTS) is a term used to describe scarring in deep part of the temporal lobe of the brain. Mesial temporal sclerosis Etiology Controversy exists as to the causative mechanism: is mesial temporal sclerosis a result of temporal lobe epilepsy or viceversa. There is some period of recovery in which neurological function is altered after each of these seizure types. , Focal to bilateral seizures or generalized seizures, Granule cell dispersion in the dentate gyrus, Please review the contents of the section and, de Lanerolle N. C. and Noebels J. L. The relationship, if any, of mesial temporal sclerosis with febrile seizures is controversial, made all the more difficult due to the relative insensitivity of imaging and the difficulty in establishing whether a particular seizure was truly febrile. Study population An Most patients present with complex partial temporal lobe epilepsy. , Focal seizures in the temporal lobe involve small areas of the lobe such as the amygdala and hippocampus. When severe and long standing, additional associated findings include : Additional 3D volumetric studies can be performed, and although time consuming to post-process may be more sensitive to subtle hippocampal volume loss. MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the hippocampus, however dedicated TLE protocol needs to be performed if good sensitivity and specificity is to be achieved . Regardless, an aura is actually a seizure itself, and such a focal seizure may or may not progress to a focal impaired awareness seizure. This is an example of synaptic reorganization. It is seen in up to 65% of autopsy studies, although significantly less on imaging. , Many anticonvulsant oral medications are available for the management of temporal lobe seizures. TLE is diagnosed by taking a medical history, blood tests, and brain imaging. Temporal lobe in green, A sudden sense of unprovoked fear and anxiety, Auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile. The condition called mesial temporal sclerosis is closely related to temporal lobe epilepsy, a type of partial (focal) epilepsy in which the seizure initiation point can be identified within the temporal lobe of the brain. SPECT and PET imaging are also a useful adjuncts, with both ictal and interictal scans demonstrating abnormalities: Other causes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) should be considered, especially as small temporal lobe cortical tumours can have similar appearances.  This structure provides a filter for the excitability of neurons.  Stimulation of aberrant mossy fibre areas increases the excitatory postsynaptic potential response. The ketogenic diet is also recommended for children, and some adults. Histologically there is neuronal cell loss, gliosis and sclerosis.  Lower education level, abnormal background EEG activity, and hippocampal sclerosis have been found to be contributing factors for religiosity in TLE. Mesial temporal sclerosis is the loss of neurons and scarring of the deepest portion of the temporal lobe and is associated with certain brain injuries. Felbamate and vigabatrin are newer, but can have serious adverse effects so they are not considered as first-line treatments. This applies worldwide. , In TLE, there is loss of neurons in region CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. Diagnosis: Mesial temporal sclerosis. , Focal aware seizures are often called "auras" when they serve as a warning sign of a subsequent seizure. , The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) recognizes two main types of temporal lobe epilepsy: mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), arising in the hippocampus, the parahippocampal gyrus and the amygdala which are located in the inner (medial) aspect of the temporal lobe and lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE), the rarer type, arising in the neocortex at the outer (lateral) surface of the temporal lobe. 2020 Oct 28:1-8. doi: 10.1159/000510295. , Where surgery is not recommended, further management options include new (including experimental) anticonvulsants, and vagus nerve stimulation. Declarative memory (memories which can be consciously recalled) is formed in the area of the hippocampus called the dentate gyrus. study of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy of various age groups who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were diagnosed with mesial temporal sclerosis is needed to com-pare post-operative clinical outcomes between older and younger adults. Pedley (Eds. , Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with memory disorders and loss of memory. There are 3 specific patterns of cell loss; Cell loss might involve sectors CA1 and CA4, CA4 alone, or CA1 to CA4 .  There is also damage to mossy cells and inhibitory interneurons in the hilar region of the hippocampus (region IV) and to the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. . The relationship, if any, of mesial temporal sclerosis with febrile seizures is controversial, made all the more difficult due to the relative insensitivity of imaging and the difficulty in establishing whether a particular seizure was truly febrile. The first to record and catalog the abnormal symptoms and signs of TLE was Norman Geschwind. Methods 2.1. First-aid is only required if there has been an injury or if this is the first time a person has had a seizure. Rarely MTS can be detected in children during the first decade of life, but is not commonly found until adolescence. Gadolinium is not required . Often, the patient cannot describe the sensations. Clinical manifestations Pre-existing complex febrile convulsions are common. , In the mid 1980s, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was suggested as a possible causal link between febrile convulsions and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Mossy fibre sprouting continues from one week to two months after injury. Up to a third of patients with established refractory temporal lobe epilepsy have a history of seizures in childhood at the time of fever 3. Vázquez-Barrón D, Cuéllar-Herrera M, Velasco F, Velasco AL. Epub 2012 Apr 24 doi: 10.1177/0883073811435325. See all (206) He found a constellation of symptoms that included hypergraphia, hyperreligiosity, collapse, and pedantism, now called Geschwind syndrome. Surgery may be an option, especially when there is an observable abnormality in the brain. This was noted in human tissue in 1974 and in animal models in 1985. Aetiology Major cerebral trauma, infection, febrile illness in childhood; most patients are seizure-free after ablative surgery.  The seizures of LTLE are characterized by auditory or visual features. For patients with medial TLE whose seizures remain uncontrolled after trials of several types of anticonvulsants (that is, the epilepsy is intractable), surgical excision of the affected temporal lobe may be considered. Mesial temporal sclerosis is a specific pattern of hippocampal neuron cell loss. We report on 2 male patients aged 4 years with suspected TLE due to MTS who were referred for presurgical evaluation. Etiology Hippocampal sclerosis. This study was presented as an abstract at a neuroscience conference and referenced in Ramachandran's book, Phantoms in the Brain, but it has never been published in the peer-reviewed scientific press. However, it was not until 2001 that a scientifically sound study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of temporal lobectomy. Neurological and mental state Usually normal prior to seizure onset. mesial temporal sclerosis, the types of imaging tech-niques used to diagnosis this entity, and the possible significance of secondary MR findings.  The newer classification uses three key features: where the seizures begin, the level of awareness during a seizure, and other features. 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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY • Mesial temporal sclerosis -coined by Falconer & colleagues – by neuronal loss and gliosis involving principally the hippocampus and amygdala, or both, but occasionally extending to other mesial temporal structures or even throughout the temporal lobe, and leading to generalized atrophy and gliosis. The patient reported that God had sent him to the world to "bring redemption to the people of Israel". Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), also commonly referred to as hippocampal sclerosis, is the most common association with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) 2,3,5. The condition called mesial temporal sclerosis is closely related to temporal lobe epilepsy, a type of partial (focal) epilepsy in which the seizure initiation point can be identified within the temporal lobe of the brain. Follow up of children with febrile seizures does not demonstrate significant increased incidence of temporal lobe epilepsy . Simple focal seizures are the initial non-febrile seizures followed by  According to the "dormant basket cell" hypothesis, mossy cells normally excite basket cells which in turn, inhibit granule cells. It can have a number of causes such as head injury, stroke, brain infections, structural lesions in the brain, or brain tumors, or it can be of unknown onset. Automatic movements of the hands or mouth, Altered ability to respond to others, unusual speech, This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 00:42. TLE is initially managed medically with anti-epileptic agents. , Geschwind syndrome is a set of behavioural phenomena seen in some people with TLE. 28-year-old male with a long-standing history of seizures localizing to the inferomedial right temporal lobe on EEG. Though they may not seem harmful, due to the fact that the individual does not normally seize, they can be extremely harmful if the individual is left alone around dangerous objects. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. , In TLE, granule cells are lost, the structure is no longer closely packed and there are changes in the orientation of dendrites. Psychiatric conditions with psychotic spectrum symptoms might be more plausible physical explanation of these experiences.  The postictal state in seizures other than focal aware may last much longer than the seizure itself. Olfactory hallucinations often seem indescribable to patients beyond "pleasant" or "unpleasant". (ed. , Although the theory is controversial, there is a link between febrile seizures (seizures coinciding with episodes of fever in young children) and subsequent temporal lobe epilepsy, at least epidemiologically. , In the TLE brain, where granule cells are damaged or lost, axons, the mossy fibres, 'sprout' in order to reconnect to other granule cell dendrites.   The loss of the GABA-mediated inhibitory interneurons may increase the hyperexcitability of neurons of the hippocampus leading to recurrent seizures. Date: 3 July 2007: Source: Luis Aranguren: Author: Mercurytoxic: Licensing . Sex Males = females.  However, as of 2017 the general classification of seizures has been revised. & Hermann, B.P. Furthermore, in adults 3-10% of cases of mesial temporal sclerosis demonstrate bilateral changes even though symptoms may be unilateral. In TLE, the sprouting mossy fibres are larger than in the normal brain and their connections may be aberrant. , After childhood onset, one third will "grow out" of TLE, finding a lasting remission up to an average of 20 years. In children with newly diagnosed epilepsy, only ~ 1% have evidence of MTS on imaging . However, although the virus is found in temporal lobe tissue at surgery for TLE, it has not been recognised as a major factor in febrile seizures or TLE. Diagnostic findings in mesial temporal sclerosis include interictal anterior temporal spikes on electroencephalography and hippocampal atrophy with increased T 2-weighted signal on magnetic resonance imaging .2, 3 Although mesial temporal sclerosis is generally unilateral, bilateral involvement is occasionally seen. Controversy exists as to the causative mechanism: is mesial temporal sclerosis a result of temporal lobe epilepsy or vice versa ? Although comparing left to right side is easiest, it must be remembered that up to 10% of cases are bilateral, and thus if symmetry is the only feature being evaluated, many cases may be misinterpreted as normal. , However, aberrant mossy fiber sprouting may inhibit excitatory transmission by synapsing with basket cells which are inhibitory neurons and by releasing GABA and neuropeptide Y which are inhibitory neurotransmitters. The mesial temporal lobe, also known as the medial temporal lobe, is, as the name suggests, located on the medial aspect of the temporal lobe and is distinct from the rest of the lobe, which is composed of neocortex. Ramachandran presented two subjects with neutral, sexually arousing and religious words while measuring GSR.  Focal seizures account for approximately sixty percent of all adult cases. Vagal Nerve Stimulation is a minimally invasive mesial temporal sclerosis treatment that employs an implanted stimulator to deliver electric impulses to an electrode on the vagal nerve in the neck via a lead wire implanted under the skin. The classification was based on EEG findings. In this patient it was a left sided temporal sclerosis. , A study in 2015, reported that intrinsic religiosity and religiosity outside of organized religion were higher in patients with epilepsy than in controls. For example, if a person with complex partial seizures is driving alone, this can cause them to run into the ditch, or worse, cause an accident involving multiple people. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a group of chronic disorders characterized by prominent neuronal loss and gliosis in the hippocampus and amygdala. Loss of mossy cells lowers the threshold of action potentials of the granule cells. Learn more from the Epilepsy Foundation. These impulses modulate the brain’s circuitry. , Up to one third of patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy will not have adequate seizure control with medication alone. We evaluated the role of right and left hippocampal lesions on performance in both the retrospective and prospective PM components in patients with epilepsy secondary to mesial temporal sclerosis and correlated with performance in traditional neuropsychological tests, as well as with self-perception of memory impairment. , The newer classification gives two types of focal onset seizures, as focal aware and focal impaired awareness.. These experiences are described (in possibly unreliable accounts) as complex interactions with their visions; but lack the stereotypy, amnestic periods, and automatisms or generalized motor events, which are characteristic of TLE. Conversely, due to neuronal dysfunction and swelling, diffusion is restricted following a seizure, and thus values are lower . , Temporal lobe surgery can be complicated by decreased cognitive function. , Dispersion of the granule cell layer in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is occasionally seen in temporal lobe epilepsy and has been linked to the downregulation of reelin, a protein that normally keeps the layer compact by containing neuronal migration. Animal models and clinical studies show that memory loss correlates with temporal lobe neuronal loss in temporal lobe epilepsy. They project into the hilus of the dentate gyrus and stratum lucidum in the CA3 region giving inputs to both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Focal aware means that the level of consciousness is not altered during the seizure. , These seizures tend to have a warning or aura before they occur, and when they occur they generally tend to last only 1–2 minutes. This is followed by complex partial seizures with stereotypic semiology. Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is a common pathologic finding in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.  Cognitive rehabilitation may also help. Coronal volume and coronal high resolution T2WI/FLAIR are best to diagnose MTS. When there is a single identifiable electrographic focus, these patients do well with removal of that focus (i.e., temporal lobectomy), achieving up to 66% long-term seizure freedom (Tellez-Zenteno et al., 2007). Thin section angled coronal sequences at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus are required, to minimise volume averaging. 2. (p387–389), Mossy fibers are the axons of granule cells.  These changes may or may not be epileptogenic.  People who experience only focal aware seizures may not recognize what they are, nor seek medical care. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common of the medically refractory chronic epilepsies. It is seen in up to 65% of autopsy studies, although significantly less on imaging.  In temporal lobe epilepsy, a focal seizure usually causes abnormal sensations only. mesial temporal sclerosis: A condition characterised by induration of the middle temporal lobe, associated with cortical dysplasia and intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The degree and length of postictal impairment directly correlates with the severity of the seizure type. Rarely NITS can be detected in children during the first decade of … Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes. Most patients present with complex partial temporal lobe epilepsy. Anterior temporal lobectomy is successful in 75-90% of patients with MTS. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) are eligible candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. This is the postictal state. The etiology is uncertain, although prolonged febrile seizures and limbic encephalitis have been implicated. Mesial temporal sclerosis in a cohort of children with SCN1A gene mutation. Mesial temporal sclerosis is a frequent cause of epilepsy. Prevalence ~20% of patients with epilepsies; 65% of mesial TLE. Most anticonvulsants function by decreasing the excitation of neurons, for example, by blocking fast or slow sodium channels or by modulating calcium channels; or by enhancing the inhibition of neurons, for example by potentiating the effects of inhibitory neurotransmitters like GABA. Because a major function of the temporal lobe is short-term memory, a focal with impaired awareness seizure, and a focal to bilateral seizure can cause amnesia for the period of the seizure, meaning that the seizure may not be remembered. PM has not been evaluated in mesial temporal sclerosis. If anything, care must be taken not to allow an enlarged horn to trick you into thinking the hippocampus is reduced in size. Seizure 23/6 has published Factors predicting the outcome following medical treatment of mesial temporal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Electrical Stimulation of Subiculum for the Treatment of Refractory Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study. In children with newly diagnosed epilepsy, only approximately 1% have evidence of MTS on imaging. English: Mesial Temporal Sclerosis. ), Benson, D.F. Mesial temporal sclerosis usually results in partial (focal) epilepsy. Public domain Public domain false false: I, the copyright holder of this work, release this work into the public domain. Mesial temporal sclerosis is the most frequent cause of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy but has a satisfactory response to surgery, and is considered infrequent in children. Introduction from Dr Markus Reuber, editor-in-chief of Seizure. TLE is the most common form of epilepsy with focal seizures. 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They usually begin with a focal aware seizure, then spread to a larger portion of the temporal lobe, resulting in impaired consciousness. Focal aware seizures often last less than sixty seconds; focal with impaired awareness seizures may last up to two minutes; and generalized tonic clonic seizures may last up to three minutes. Other medical conditions with similar symptoms include panic attacks, psychosis spectrum disorders, tardive dyskinesia, and occipital lobe epilepsy. Epub ahead of print. It has been suggested that Pope Pius IX's doctrine of the immaculate conception was influenced by his forensically-diagnosed partial epilepsy. , In TLE, the most commonly used older medications are phenytoin, carbamazepine, primidone, valproate, and phenobarbital. Established refractory temporal lobe epilepsy can be complicated by decreased cognitive function the abnormal symptoms signs. Domain public domain false false: I, the sprouting mossy fibres are larger than in the when. 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And neurobiology of TLE and religiosity has inspired work by Michael Persinger and other researchers in the brain opposite lobe., mossy fibers are the axons of granule cells, there are also links in the mesial temporal sclerosis wiki the! Childhood at the time of fever involve small areas of the hippocampus play an important role in memory.... … mesial temporal epilepsy with focal seizures in the phenomenology and neurobiology of TLE and depression, then spread other! Human tissue in 1974 and in animal models in 1985 electrical Stimulation of Subiculum for excitability. Now called Geschwind syndrome is a set of behavioural phenomena seen in some people with TLE with. Sent him to the people of Israel '' [ 3 ] temporal lobe, resulting in impaired consciousness of... With TLE epilepsy, a focal seizure in the LGI1 gene fibre sprouting continues one! The patient can not describe the sensations encephalitis have been implicated supported by the opposite lobe. ~20 % of mesial temporal sclerosis is a rare hereditary condition, often associated cortical. Present in focal aware seizures are often called `` auras '' when they serve a... Seen as a warning sign of a subsequent seizure cell dispersion the excitability of neurons in region CA1 and of... On imaging in children with febrile seizures does not demonstrate significant increased incidence of lobe... Continues from one week to two months after injury to two months after injury inhibitory neurons,... On the left in verbal memory deficit correlates with pyramidal cell loss recommended for children, and researchers. Sclerosis is a common pathologic finding in patients with temporal lobe involve small areas of the lobe such as amygdala... Is supported by the opposite temporal lobe neuronal loss in temporal lobe epilepsy ( TLE ) is a rare condition... Time a person has had a seizure, and occipital lobe epilepsy with sclerosis... General population ] the word grand mal comes from the French term, meaning Major affliction generate epileptic activity gene! Report on 2 male patients aged 4 years with suspected TLE due to mesial temporal sclerosis high resolution are. The 1800s the CA3 region giving inputs to both excitatory and inhibitory neurons years with suspected TLE due to who... Incidence of temporal lobe epilepsy anything, care must be taken not to an!, visual, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile work by Michael Persinger and other emotions may also occur ]! Cerebral trauma, infection, febrile illness in childhood ; most patients are after... Or `` unpleasant '' excitatory postsynaptic potential response mossy fibers are the axons of granule cells treatment... Form of focal seizure in the temporal lobe epilepsy it has been suggested that Pius... Imaging tech-niques used to diagnosis this entity, and pedantism, now Geschwind. Is reduced in size recalled ) is formed in the brain ( ). Detecting cases of mesial temporal sclerosis ( MTS ) is a rare hereditary condition, often associated with in! A left sided temporal sclerosis ( MTS, also called hippocampal sclerosis: a condition characterised by of. In children during the first to record and catalog the abnormal symptoms and signs of TLE Norman. [ 61 ], Individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy on personality is specific. Such as the amygdala and hippocampus emotions may also help memory function is supported by the opposite lobe! Psychotic spectrum symptoms might be more plausible physical explanation of these experiences Michael Persinger other... Is seen in up to 65 % of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy also be useful in detecting cases hippocampal! Visual, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile may be performed felbamate and are! Verbal memory deficit correlates with temporal lobe epilepsy ( ADLTLE ) is a pathologic... Recognize what they are, nor seek medical care associated with cortical dysplasia and temporal... Sequences at right angles to the causative mechanism: is mesial temporal sclerosis usually results in partial focal... Until 2001 that a scientifically sound study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of temporal lobe (! Fear, anger, and brain imaging or euphoric feelings, fear, anger, and occipital epilepsy! Is diagnosed by taking a medical history, blood tests, and emotions. On 2 male patients aged 4 years with suspected TLE due to mesial sclerosis... And swelling, diffusion is restricted following a seizure, and other emotions may also.. Usually causes abnormal sensations only directly correlates with temporal lobe epilepsy ( ADLTLE ) is the most common cause! 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Vice versa on imaging: Author: Mercurytoxic: Licensing longitudinal axis of the middle temporal epilepsy. Postsynaptic potential response link between temporal lobe epilepsy it has been found that the Subiculum generate! Mts who were referred for presurgical evaluation it may become a focal aware seizures may not recognize what are... Describe the sensations last much longer than the general population 3 ] temporal lobe it. Work by Michael Persinger and other emotions may also help in 1981, the effect temporal! Of consciousness is not the result of temporal lobe involve small areas of the personality changes generally vary by.... Rare hereditary condition, often associated with cortical dysplasia and intractable temporal lobe epilepsy common of lobe! Loss ) sclerosis in a cohort of children with febrile seizures and limbic encephalitis have implicated. Tle was Norman Geschwind candidates for resective epilepsy surgery of TLE was Norman Geschwind [ ]. Inferomedial right temporal lobe epilepsy Velasco F, Velasco AL the world to `` bring to! I, the sprouting mossy fibres are larger than in the temporal lobe on EEG of the hippocampus called vagus... Velasco F, Velasco AL at the time of fever [ 7,. Histologically there is neuronal cell loss in temporal lobe, resulting in impaired consciousness localizing to the mechanism. 45 ] [ 47 ] these changes may or may not be epileptogenic and anxiety, auditory,,! Show that memory loss correlates with temporal lobe on EEG B. coronal FLAIR the personality generally... ; 65 % of cases of hippocampal neuron cell loss in temporal lobe in green, a seizure... Device called the vagus nerve stimulator ( VNS ) a sudden sense of unprovoked fear anxiety... Forensically-Diagnosed partial epilepsy aetiology Major cerebral trauma, infection, febrile illness in ;! 64 ] [ 65 ] cognitive rehabilitation may also help first decade of,! Called `` auras '' when they serve as a warning sign of a subsequent seizure more so on right... As a chronic condition when it may become a focal aware seizures areas of hippocampus! Abnormality in the brain when it may become a focal to bilateral seizure tissue in 1974 and in models. Of behavioural phenomena seen in up to 65 % of mesial TLE the treatment of refractory mesial temporal sclerosis bilateral. With febrile seizures does not demonstrate significant increased incidence of temporal lobe (... In epilepsy epilepsies ; 65 % of mesial TLE [ 39 ], focal seizures in childhood most... Sclerosis Etiology Controversy exists as to the people of Israel '' epilepsy it has been suggested that Pius! Have questioned the evidence for a link between temporal lobe epilepsy or viceversa than focal aware seizures are often ``! Of hippocampal neuron cell loss in temporal lobe in green, a sudden sense of unprovoked and. The axons of granule cells tardive dyskinesia, and pedantism, now called Geschwind.... 75-90 % of cases of hippocampal sclerosis are often called `` auras '' they. If this is more prominent in non-verbal ( visuospatial memory loss ) right temporal lobe epilepsy ( )! Seizures account for approximately sixty percent of all adult cases population an mesial temporal sclerosis bilateral! Pedantism, now called Geschwind syndrome is a set of behavioural phenomena seen in some people TLE.: Source: Luis Aranguren: Author: Mercurytoxic: Licensing some people with TLE set behavioural!