STUDY. Create. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This means that there is a peak in primary productivity between spring and summer and a dip during autumn and winter when productivity is light-limited. In this section, we will be discussing another topic that will put us on step closer to understanding our oceans just a little clearer. -Antarctic macrobenthic diversity at least 6 times as high as Arctic. Humans are the primary cause There is a phylum of bacteria that can photosynthesize? B) nutrient-limited. “Gross primary production” (GPP) refers to the total rate of organic carbon production by autotrophs, while “respiration” refers to the energy-yielding oxidation of organic car-bon back to carbon dioxide. Summarise the main biological differences between the Antarctic and Arctic. Geographically, phytoplankton abundance generally decreases as you move from coastal to oceanic waters (Figure 7.4.1). Describe the physical characteristics of the Southern Ocean, -A circumpolar ocean surrounding a large continent, -Sea ice (pack ice)- formed from saltwater- freezing onto base of pack ice. When is there a great phytoplankton bloom (in temperate seas)? In warm weather (like the tropics year round, or the summer at temperate seas). year, a drifting polar ice pack covers the central and western portions year-round, and sea temper-ature seldom rises above 0°C. D) light and nutrient-limited. -About 5% of total Antarctic primary productivity takes place within sea ice. what is primary productivity? animal plankton, heterotrophic, eat phytoplankton. blown in from areas that support primary production. Photosynthesis requires photosynthetic organisms, light, carbon Lesson Plan 15 Being Productive in the Arctic Ocean. Without plants, means there will be no primary productivity that can help to produce oxygen. ocean productivity are revealed by the following defi-nitions (Bender et al. Primary producers of polar oceans Phytoplankton composed mainly by diatoms, haptophytes (coccolithophores), dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. 15) Summer productivity in temperate waters typically is hampered by _____. The year is split into periods of constant night and day. D. Regional Oceanic Productivity 1. Diatoms. Polar. “Net primary production” Describe how productive Antarctic sea ice is. How is primary productivity usually done? O Oxygen-limited. Sunlight and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorous). What are some problems with ocean fertilization when considering it as a means to mitigate global warming? Equations. colleenmcf. 1987) (Figure 1). Primary productivity in tropical oceans is limited by the amount of nutrients available. 7.4 Patterns of Primary Production Primary productivity varies both geographically and seasonally. Too many "grazers" 16) Of the following statements about oceanic productivity in polar regions, which is/are true? Describe primary productivity in the Tropical Seas, -nutrients are limited due to stratification, Describe primary productivity in the Temperate Seas, Describe primary productivity in the Polar Seas. 71) Productivity in polar oceans is: A) light-limited. Primary Productivity Primary Productivity is the production of Iron, released through fertilization, increases photosynthesis in phytoplankton, which bury CO2 via the biological pump process. Sample Day #3: Primary Productivity again is much lower than on Sample Day #1. Primary production is the most basic building block for energy and the basis for food webs in all environments and ecosystems. -They are the primary competitor of krill for phytoplankton, but cannot feed on ice algae. 42 terms. - In polar oceans, nutrient concentrations are usually adequate and do NOT limit productivity. E) nutrient and oxygen-limited. primary production is the production of organic compounds (sugars) from atmospheric or aquatic carbon dioxide. B) nutrient-limited. Why Primary Productivity Varies Among Polar, Tropical, and Temperate Oceans We have made quite a journey through our walk through productivity in our oceans. Primary production is the production of chemical energy in organic compounds by living organisms.The main source of this energy is sunlight but a minute fraction of primary production is driven by lithotrophic organisms using the chemical energy of inorganic molecules.. False What is TRUE about primary causes of ocean acidification? Primary productivity is the rate at which energy is accumulated and converted through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis into organic substances. During spring, when sunlight becomes ample and day lengths increase, a huge burst in production occurs. primary. plants are _____ producers. A Brief Summary of Primary Productivity in Polar, Temperate, and Tropical Oceans. Productivity in Polar Oceans The low availability of solar energy limits photosynthetic productivity in polar areas. Through photosynthesis (sometimes chemosynthesis), production of sugars using energy from chemicals (released in deep sea vents). Polar oceans belong to the most productive marine ecosystems. polar primary productivity in the highest category, for example on the same scale as that . Where is there the greatest phytoplankton bloom? In the ocean, autotrophs which are responsible for primary production consist of phytoplankton, marine plants, and macroalgae since they all perform photosynthesis. Open oceans produce the largest share of Earth's biomass because the net primary productivity (NPP) of the oceans is Low, but the large expanse of the oceans supports enormous numbers of producers such as phytoplankton The sun's radiation provides the energy for all of the following EXCEPT Plate Tectonics “Gross primary production” (GPP) refers to the total rate of organic carbon production by autotrophs, while “respiration” refers to the energy-yielding oxidation of organic car-bon back to carbon dioxide. Biotic disturbance is very high in the Arctic: Describe the physical characteristics of the Arctic. During these months, the Antarctic Ocean's upwelling zone exhibits some of the Earth's highest primary productivity. silica (makes many animals' shells), CO2 & H2O, Microscopic plants that are the dominant primary producers in the ocean (do 90-96% of primary production), coastal regions, because there is so much fertilizer with nitrogen and phosphorous, phytoplankton remove CO2 from the surface waters and store it in the deep ocean (they consume a lot of CO2 and bring it to the bottom with their bodies when they die). A) coastal upwelling zones B) coral reefs C) equatorial upwelling zones D) mangrove swamps E) All of the above tropical areas have relatively high primary productivity. Describe the causes of biotic disturbance in the Arctic. O Light And Nutrient-limited. Using data that have become available during the last ten years we have reestimated the annual production by phytoplankton in the arctic marine ecosystem. In polar open oceans, primary production is wildly fluctuating. Organic matter in the ocean is produced by photosynthesis (and chemosynthesis to a lesser extend) and destructed by respiration. Primary productivity is strongly dependent upon light availability and the presence of nutrients, and thus is highly seasonal in the Arctic region. Lecture 7 – Life in the Ocean – Primary Productivity and Respiration Life determines ocean chemistry and responds to it. Although the Arctic is still the world’s least explored ocean, new expe-ditions are about to give us much greater knowl-edge of the mysteries of this polar frontier. This is of considerable significance regionally, but still does not, of itself, imply that global phytoplankton production is underestimated at present. Learn productivity ocean with free interactive flashcards. Variation in primary productivity, measured typically as the concentration of chlorophyll in water, is a primary determinant of all biological productivity up the food web and trophic pyramid. Sample Day #4: Primary Productivity is lowest yet, Without the primary productivity process means there will be no food whether it is for the plants or the other living beings. - In polar oceans, productivity is limited by the lack of sunlight in the winter.-Polar oceans typically display a strong, permanent thermocline. https://quizlet.com/275652110/midterm-4-chapter-13-flash-cards Question: Question 7 1 Pts Primary Productivity In Polar Oceans Is: Nutrient-limited. E) nutrient and oxygen-limited. Calculating primary productivity. primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean. The total amount of biological productivity in a region or ecosystem is called the gross primary productivity. Polar or high-latitude oceans: >60º north/south latitude The length of day really varies, so it’s sunlight (not nutrients) that limits productivity Get incredible productivity during the spring/summer on land, too Throughout the history of earth, physical forces acting on the oceans and the chemical processes taking place therein have never been at steady state, but rather have constantly changed. Ocean Primary Productivity. Log in Sign up. The year is split into periods of constant night and day. “Net primary production” How might ocean fertilization help remove CO2 from our atmosphere? 276) ____ A) photosynthetic bacteria B) phytoplankton C) dinoflagellate D) primary E) zooplankton 277) Productivity is limited by _____ in polar regions and by _____ in the low-latitude tropics. 31 233) Productivity in polar oceans is _____. Extra dissolved carbon dioxide in the ocean is the primary cause b. water with low concentration of dissolved oxygen, How zooplankton stay below photic zone during the day, migrate up at night, -CO2 becomes sugar through photosynthesis/ chemosynthesis, the upper most region of the water column where there is enough light for photosynthesis to occur. Primary production is the production of chemical energy in organic compounds by living organisms.The main source of this energy is sunlight but a minute fraction of primary production is driven by lithotrophic organisms using the chemical energy of inorganic molecules.. a cloud (condensed water) that touches the ground, When warm, moisture-laden air cools—>gas condenses into small liquid droplets, when deep, cold (usually nutrient-rich) water is pulled to the surface, -the net flow of a current is 90 degrees to the right of the path of the wind that drives it (Northern Hemisphere), Explain the weather in the Central Valley, -hot and humid air comes in from the Pacific, just above bottom of photic zone—light is at approx 1% of surface's intensity, organisms decompose organic matter and return phosphates and nitrates. Log in Sign up. are probably responsible, since Nitrate and Chlorophyll a levels are similar to previous days. Describe the effects of ice scours on benthos. Nearly all of Earth’s primary productivity is … B- Some whales, including blue whales, migrate long distances to feed in polar seas during the polar summer. It is not possible to understand the composition of seawater (or marine sediments) without understanding life processes. 233) ____ 234) Productivity in tropical oceans is generally _____. excess nutrients causing a bloom that uses up oxygen and creates a dead zone, a microorganism, especially bacteria, that causes fermentation/ disease, only spend part of their lives suspended in water column. At this point, we know that there are at least three distinct biological communities in the Arctic Whats an example of a micro algae? A) coastal upwelling zones B) coral reefs C) equatorial upwelling zones D) mangrove swamps E) All of the above tropical areas have relatively high primary productivity. Describe how the polar oceans change with depth. True Nutrients can be either an elements or compounds and two important ions in the Ocean are NO2-, and PO43-? macro. There is little to no sunlight, which means that for most of the year, there is no primary production taking place. -Arctic Ocean is an almost enclosed sea surrounded by land. Biomass is the dry weight of all the organic matter within organisms of the ecosystem. PLAY. Plants through the primary productivity actually help the environment to maintain nearly all gases in the ocean such as carbon dioxide. The cold water at the bottom remains unaffected by heat, while the surface is heated, creating a great difference in density, leading to stratification. The oceans below the photic zone are a vast space, ... Primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean is largely due to photosynthesis carried out by microscopic drifting algae called phytoplankton. Search. Why are nutrients limited at the surface? zone where light does not penetrate (about 90% of the ocean), to create DNA, RNA, proteins—to keep themselves together, not biologically "useful" by all organisms, in a form that all organisms can use to make biomolecules and/ or power cells, special organisms (mostly bacteria) that convert inorganic nitrogen to organic nitrogen. Productivity in the Ocean. D) light and nutrient-limited. Describe an example of pelagic exchange across the Arctic. A- Polar ocean waters have a strong thermocline. Start studying Productivity in the Ocean. Consequently, primary production provides a key ecosystem service by providing energy to the entire food web in the oceans. Many people are surprised to learn, however, that roughly half of this productivity occurs in the oceans and is conducted by microscopic plants called phytoplankton. -Icebergs or pack ice scrape along benthic surface, Also known as 'sea ice factories', they are areas of open water surrounded by sea ice. 276) Blue whales time their migration through middle latitude and polar oceans to coincide with maximum _____ productivity. ocean productivity are revealed by the following defi-nitions (Bender et al. 71) Productivity in polar oceans is: A) light-limited. In both coastal and open-ocean regions, physical-chemical conditions dictate biological productivity and its distribution, … (select all that apply) a. Most of the primary productivity in the oceans is a result of a kelp forests b from OCEAN 320 at San Diego State University - In polar oceans, there is incredibly high productivity in the summertime. In the polar oceans, phytoplankton blooms (explosive population growth) occur during the summer months as a result of favorable light conditions which lead to short-term increased primary productivity. C-Primary productivity in polar seas reaches high levels during the polar summer. This means that there is a peak in primary productivity between spring and summer and a dip during autumn and winter when productivity is light-limited. Thanks to primary productivity, we can measure how much sugar and oxygen are produced in water sources, especially in oceans and by terrestrial plants. During these months, the Antarctic Ocean's upwelling zone … Light-limited Question 8 1 Pts Phytoplankton Can Counteract Sinking By All The Following Except: Swimming Upwards Small Cell Size. In the polar oceans, phytoplankton blooms (explosive population growth) occur during the summer months as a result of favorable light conditions which lead to short-term increased primary productivity. The poles (in the summer), since there is very cold water, so no thermocline, and light. All the above tropical areas have relatively high primary productivity. Will this removal be permanent? Describe how primary productivity in the polar oceans is light-limited. Why is it beneficial for benthic invertebrates to have a planktonic larval stage? 234) ____ 235) Although primary productivity in tropical areas is generally low, which of the following tropical locations have unusually high primary productivity rates? Productivity in Tropical Areas Productivity in tropical regions is limited by the lack of nutrients. Because all life on Earth is directly or indirectly reliant on it. They are cold with a weak thermocline (temp gradient) and a weak pycnocline (density gradient). Strong stratification creates a strong thermocline, which disables nutrients that have sunk to the bottom to come back. Choose from 156 different sets of productivity ocean flashcards on Quizlet. Coastal waters are more productive than the central ocean for two main reasons. C) oxygen-limited. This also means that the ocean food chain will be altered. A combination of ice cover and reduced PAR (perhaps it was a cloudy day!) The new figure is some sixteen times higher than an estimate made in 1975. What are non-limiting factors in the ocean? distribution of ocean productivity and biomass is remarkably similar to our current views based on cumulative field measurements (Berger 1989) and ocean color satellite images (Lewis 1989), with one notable exception; Sverdrup's map depicts polar primary productivity in the highest category, for example on the same scale as that Describe the physical characteristics of the Antarctic continental shelf. - In polar oceans, productivity is high year-round. Biomass within an ecosystem is determined by how much and how quickly the producers in the ecosystem are able to capture and store the chemical energy. https://quizlet.com/14087866/primary-productivity-flash-cards Describe how salps could take over from Antarctic krill at the base of the food web. Primary productivity, the rate at which energy is converted to organic substances by photosynthetic producers, which obtain energy and nutrients by using sunlight, and chemosynthetic producers, which obtain chemical energy through oxidation. C) oxygen-limited. Figure 13.18, page 420 D. Regional Oceanic Productivity 1. What is the significance of ocean stratification in relation to primary production? After all, another importance of primary productivity in ocean is to maintain the diversity in the ocean to still exist. What primary productivity in polar regions actually looks like… Phytoplankton Figure 13.19a, page 421Zooplankton. Autumn and spring, when the thermocline decays and there is a great nutrient input, and still light. Satellite-Based Global Ocean Primary Productivity. -Dominant herbivore- occupy all layers of water column. Kelp are considered _____ algae. -Diatom Neodenticula seminae (dominant primary producer in the North Pacific). In this lecture you have the opportunity to explore a number of examples of how ocean productivity varies. Describe the importance of Antarctic krill. 1987) (Figure 1). Total net primary production on Earth exceeds 100 billion tons of carbon per year, and it plays a profound role in the global carbon cycle. Why is the thermocline strongest in warm weather? Because they are used immediately and usually sink when in a dead organism or as waste, -oil floats (oil is less dense than water). Describe how primary productivity in the polar oceans is light-limited. 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